What are the main symptoms of epilepsy

What are the symptoms of epilepsy? It is essential to know them, since this disease is not always easy to diagnose, as it does not only occur with convulsive seizures.

Many people wonder what the symptoms of epilepsy are and how to treat it. However, before touching on the most intricate aspects of this pathology, it is essential to establish exactly what it consists of and what is triggered.

Epilepsy is a chronic neurological disease that affects the central nervous system and is manifested by recurrent seizures. The crisis is nothing but an anomalous and short-lived electrical discharge of the brain’s nerve cells, whose activity is interrupted, generating convulsions. It is a sudden reaction of the cerebral and non-permanent nervous tissue, but destined to repeat itself over time, generating anxiety in the patient and relatives.

As for epilepsy, the triggering causes are not always easy to identify and in some cases are even unknown (primary or idiopathic epilepsies). Usually, this pathology is attributable to genetic factors, brain or infectious diseases, tumors, head trauma, developmental disorders and prenatal lesions. There are generally two peaks of onset: in the neonatal-infantile period and in the third age.

Epilepsy symptoms: known and less known

As a rule, the symptoms vary depending on the type of epileptic seizure that occurs. In fact, crises can be convulsive, which involve shocks and muscle stiffening, but also drool at the mouth and a brief loss of consciousness. Once the attack is over, the affected person can remain unconscious or sleep for a few minutes or for a few hours.

However, epilepsy can also occur with partial seizures, which present unusual and often poorly understood symptoms. In this case we can speak of non convulsive epileptic seizures, which involve annoying sensations at the level of the stomach, comparable to a fist, accompanied by palpitation and flushing of the face (epigastric aura).

In other cases, however, the subject is subjected to loss of orientation or visual, sound and olfactory hallucinations. And again, dysmnesic and affective crises (panic attacks) can occur, often accompanied by severe nausea. In all these forms the patient can remain conscious.

As regards, instead, nocturnal epilepsy the most frequent symptoms are: tremors, nausea, feeling of being rejected or falling, shortness of breath or hyperventilation. In such circumstances the attacks are manifested by abnormal movements of the limbs, moans or cries. However, in the case of epilepsy the symptoms of adults and children are important in order to be able to formulate an accurate diagnosis that can lead to the identification of an effective therapy.

How is epilepsy treated?

The diagnosis of the disease is formulated based on the description of epileptic seizures. Therefore, knowing how to recognize the symptoms of epilepsy is essential to understand how to intervene. In some cases, moreover, it is possible to deepen the information received thanks to the help of specific laboratory tests, such as MRI and electroencephalogram.

In case of epilepsy what to do? When this nervous system disease is diagnosed, doctors usually provide adequate drug therapy, which however does not aim to heal the patient, but to prevent the appearance of crises. In the event that this proves to be inadequate, it is necessary to think of intervening with surgery, which involves the localization and removal of the outbreak.

You can also have epileptic seizures due to stress or excessive anxiety, and, in this case, it is necessary to intervene with a treatment based on the use of antidepressant drugs and psycho-behavioral therapy. As regards, instead, infantile epilepsy due to genetic factors and not to injuries, it does not require treatment, since it tends to resolve itself with brain maintenance.

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